Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Significant Accounting Policies
New Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued guidance on Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, to simplify the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. Some of the areas for simplification apply only to nonpublic entities. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The adoption of this guidance has not had a material impact on the Company’s results of operation, financial position or disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued guidance to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. Previous lease accounting was criticized for failing to meet the needs of users of financial statements because it did not always provide a faithful representation of leasing transactions. In particular, it did not require lessees to recognize assets and liabilities arising from operating leases on the balance sheet. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018.
Effective December 22, 2017, the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 5 EE, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“SAB Topic 5 EE”). This staff accounting bulletin expresses the views of the SEC staff regarding application of ASC Topic 740 in the reporting period that includes December 22, 2017, the date on which the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Jobs Act”) was signed into law. The SEC recognizes that an entity may not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) for certain income tax effects of the Jobs Act in order to determine a reasonable estimate to be included as provisional amounts. In circumstances in which provisional amounts cannot be prepared, the SEC stated an entity should continue to apply ASC Topic 740 (e.g., when recognizing and measuring current and deferred taxes) based on the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately prior to the Jobs Act being enacted until a reasonable estimate can be determined.
There are no additional accounting pronouncements issued or effective during the twelve months ended December 31, 2017 that have had or are expected to have an impact on our financial statements.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The principal areas of estimation reflected in the financial statements are anticipated milestone payments, stock based compensation, valuation of warrants, and income tax valuation allowance. Inventory obsolescence reserve, sales returns and allowances and the allowance for doubtful accounts were the principal areas of estimation that had been reflected in the financial statements related to discontinued operations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash balances and highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited in a financial institution and consist of demand deposits and overnight repurchase agreements and at times deposits are in excess of federally insured limits.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets (three to seven years). Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the lease term of the related asset (three years).
In accordance with US GAAP, the Company is required to report segment information. As the Company only operates principally in one business segment, no additional reporting is required.
Stock-Based Payment Arrangements
Generally, all forms of stock-based payments, including stock option grants, warrants, and restricted stock grants are measured at their fair value on the awards’ grant date typically using a Black-Scholes pricing model. Stock-based compensation awards issued to non-employees for services rendered are recorded at the fair value of the stock-based payment. The expense resulting from stock-based payments are recorded in research and development expense or selling, general and administrative expense in the statement of operations, depending on the nature of the services provided. Stock-based payment expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us. To the extent the stock option grants, warrants, or restricted stock grants do not vest at the grant date they are subject to forfeiture.
US GAAP requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their fair values as of the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us, to the extent the options do not vest at the grant date and are subject to forfeiture. For performance-based awards that do not include market-based conditions, we record share-based compensation expense only when the performance-based milestone is deemed probable of achievement. We utilize both quantitative and qualitative criteria to judge whether milestones are probable of achievement. For awards with market-based performance conditions, we recognize the grant-date fair value of the award over the derived service period regardless of whether the underlying performance condition is met.
The Company used the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model in calculating the relative fair value of any warrants that have been issued.
In accordance with ASC 480-10-25 Liabilities-Distinguishing from Equity, warrants are accounted for as liabilities at their fair value during periods where they can be net cash settled in case of a change in control transaction. The warrants are accounted for as a liability at their fair value at each reporting period. The value of the derivative warrant liability will be re-measured at each reporting period with changes in fair value recorded as a change in the value of derivative liability. To derive an estimate of the fair value of these warrants, a Black Scholes Option Pricing Model is utilized.
Net Loss Per Share
During all periods presented, the Company had securities outstanding that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive. Because the Company reported a net loss for all periods presented, basic and diluted net loss per share amounts are the same for the periods presented. Net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically reviews their long-lived assets for impairment and reduces the carrying value to fair value whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. There were no impairment losses recorded during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development consists of expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of product candidates. These expenses consist primarily of the following: employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits and attending science conferences; costs incurred in connection with Exclusive Channel Collaboration (“ECC”) agreements with Intrexon, expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, investigative sites and consultants that conduct our clinical trials and a substantial portion of nonclinical studies; the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials; facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and equipment, and depreciation of fixed assets; license fees for and milestone payments related to in-licensed products and technology; stock-based compensation expense; and costs associated with nonclinical activities and regulatory approvals. The Company expenses research and development costs as incurred.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rate is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are reduced to estimated amounts expected to be realized by the use of a valuation allowance. Based on our historical operating losses, a valuation allowance has been recognized for all deferred tax assets.
Under US GAAP, the impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Additionally, US GAAP provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting for interim periods, disclosure and transition.
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash accounts in commercial banks, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2017, the uninsured portion of this balance was $5,916,143. As of December 31, 2016, the uninsured portion of this balance was $3,830,618.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef