Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Significant Accounting Policies
3. Significant Accounting Policies
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Standards Update No. 2013-11, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists,” for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. In July 2013, the FASB issued new accounting guidance on the presentation of unrecognized tax benefits. The new guidance requires an entity to present an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward, except as follows: to the extent a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward is not available at the reporting date under the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction to settle any additional income taxes that would result from the disallowance of a tax position or the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction does not require the entity to use, and the entity does not intend to use the deferred tax asset for such purpose, then the unrecognized tax benefit should be presented in the financial statements as a liability and should not be combined with deferred tax assets. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2013, with early adoption permitted. Accordingly, we adopted these presentation requirements during this quarter. The adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements or related disclosures.
Other than disclosed, there are no new accounting pronouncements issued or effective during the first quarter of 2014 that have had or are expected to have an impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The principal areas of estimation reflected in the financial statements are anticipated milestone payments, stock based compensation, valuation of warrants, income tax valuation allowance, inventory obsolescence reserve, sales returns and allowances and allowance for doubtful accounts.
Guaranteed Rights of Return
The Company has granted guaranteed rights of return to two dental distributor customer accounts. The Company defers recognition of revenue on these accounts until the customer provides notification to the Company that the product has been sold to the end consumer. Once notification has been received and verified, the Company records revenue in that accounting period. The Company had $50,400 and $18,839 of revenue deferred under guaranteed rights of return arrangements included in deferred revenue in the balance sheets as of March 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost, which includes material, labor and overhead, is determined on a first-in, first-out basis. On a quarterly basis, we analyze our inventory levels and reserve for inventory that is expected to expire prior to being sold, inventory that has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value, inventory in excess of expected sales requirements, or inventory that fails to meet commercial sale specifications. Expired inventory is disposed of and the related costs are written off to the reserve for inventory obsolescence. The inventory reserve at March 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013 was approximately $34,700 and $31,500, respectively.
Stock-Based Payment Arrangements
Generally, all forms of stock-based payments, including stock option grants, warrants, and restricted stock grants are measured at their fair value on the awards’ grant date typically using a Black-Scholes pricing model. Stock-based compensation awards issued to non-employees for services rendered are recorded at the fair value of the stock-based payment or the fair value of the service provided, whichever is more readily determinable. The expense resulting from stock-based payments is recorded in research and development expense or selling, general and administrative expense in the statement of operations, depending on the nature of the services provided. Stock-based payment expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us. To the extent the stock option grants, warrants, or restricted stock grants do not vest at the grant date they are subject to forfeiture.
GAAP requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their fair values as of the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us, to the extent the options do not vest at the grant date and are subject to forfeiture. For performance-based awards that do not include market-based conditions, we record share-based compensation expense only when the performance-based milestone is deemed probable of achievement. We utilize both quantitative and qualitative criteria to judge whether milestones are probable of achievement. For awards with market-based performance conditions, we recognize the grant-date fair value of the award over the derived service period regardless of whether the underlying performance condition is met.
The Company used the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model in calculating the relative fair value of any warrants that have been issued.
Net Loss Per Share
During all periods presented, the Company had securities outstanding that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive. Because the Company reported a net loss for all periods presented, shares associated with the stock options and warrants are not included because they are antidilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per share amounts are the same for the periods presented. Net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding.
We recognize revenues from the sales of product when title and risk of loss pass to the customer, which is generally when the product is shipped. Grant revenues are recognized as the reimbursable expenses are incurred over the life of the related grant. Grant revenues are deferred when reimbursable expenses have not been incurred.
We record allowances for discounts and product returns at the time of sales as a reduction of revenues as such allowances can be reliably estimated based on historical experience or known trends. Product returns are limited to specific mass retail customers for expiration of shelf life or unsold product over a period of time. We maintain a return policy that allows our customers to return product within a specified period of time prior to and subsequent to the expiration date of the product. Our estimate of the provision for returns is analyzed quarterly and is based upon many factors, including industry data of product return rates, historical experience of actual returns, analysis of the level of inventory in the distribution channel, if any, and reorder rates. If the history or our product returns changes, the reserve will be adjusted. While we believe that the reserves we have established are reasonable and appropriate based upon current facts and circumstances, applying different judgments to the same facts and circumstances would result in the estimated amounts for sales returns and chargebacks to vary. Because our ProBiora3 products have only recently been introduced, we could experience different circumstances in the future and these differences could be material.
The Company has granted guaranteed rights of return at various times to certain customers. At this time there are two dental distributors with guaranteed rights of return. Orders are processed and shipped on these accounts however the Company defers recognition of revenue until the customer provides notification to the Company that the product has sold to the end consumer. Once notification has been received and verified, the Company will record revenue in that accounting period.
The Company is dependent on four key suppliers to provide probiotics, blending, warehousing and packaging of its EvoraPlus, EvoraPlus Kids, EvoraPro, and Teddy’s Pride products during the three months ended March 31, 2014 and 2013. The majority of the Company’s cost of sales are from these key suppliers. As of March 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, our accounts payable and accrued expenses for these vendors totaled $-0- and $146,284, respectively.
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash accounts in commercial banks, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents. As of March 31, 2014, the uninsured portion of this balance was $14,388,954. As of December 31, 2013, the uninsured portion of this balance was $16,026,510.