Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2014
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies

2. Significant Accounting Policies

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40) Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern.” ASU 2014-15 provides guidance on management’s responsibility in evaluating whether there is substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern and about related footnote disclosures. For each reporting period, management will be required to evaluate whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date the financial statements are issued. Management will also be required to evaluate and disclose whether its plans alleviate that doubt. ASU 2014 – 15 is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for interim periods within annual periods ending after December 15, 2016. Earlier application is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the requirements of ASU 2014-15 and has not yet determined its impact on the Company’s financial statements.


In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” ASU 2014-09 completes the joint effort by the FASB and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to improve financial reporting by creating common revenue recognition guidance for U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). ASU 2014-09 applies to all companies that enter into contracts with customers to transfer goods or services. ASU 2014-09 is effective for public entities for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early application is not permitted and entities have the choice to apply ASU 2014-09 either retrospectively to each reporting period presented or by recognizing the cumulative effect of applying ASU 2014-09 at the date of initial application and not adjusting comparative information. The Company is currently evaluating the requirements of ASU 2014-09 and has not yet determined its impact on the Company’s financial statements.

In July 2013, the FASB issued new accounting guidance on the presentation of unrecognized tax benefits, Accounting Standards Update No. 2013-11, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists,” for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. The new guidance requires an entity to present an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward, except as follows: to the extent a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward is not available at the reporting date under the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction to settle any additional income taxes that would result from the disallowance of a tax position or the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction does not require the entity to use, and the entity does not intend to use the deferred tax asset for such purpose, then the unrecognized tax benefit should be presented in the financial statements as a liability and should not be combined with deferred tax assets. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2013, with early adoption permitted. Accordingly, we adopted these presentation requirements during the first quarter of 2014. The adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements or related disclosures.

There are no other new accounting pronouncements issued or effective during 2014 that have had or are expected to have an impact on the Company’s financial statements.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The principal areas of estimation reflected in the financial statements are anticipated milestone payments, stock based compensation, valuation of warrants, income tax valuation allowance, inventory obsolescence reserve, sales returns and allowances and allowance for doubtful accounts.

Guaranteed Rights of Return

The Company has granted guaranteed rights of return to two dental distributor customer accounts. The Company defers recognition of revenue on these accounts until the customer provides notification to the Company that the product has been sold to the end consumer or the guaranteed right of return period expires. Once notification has been received and verified, the Company records revenue in that accounting period. The Company had $21,222 and $18,839 of revenue deferred under guaranteed rights of return arrangements included in deferred revenue in the balance sheets as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash balances and highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited in a financial institution and consist of demand deposits and overnight repurchase agreements and at times deposits are in excess of federally insured limits.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are recorded at their net realizable value and consist of trade receivables from the sale of product to customers. We analyze accounts receivable on a monthly basis and determine the collectability based on the facts and circumstances relating to each customer. The Company estimates their allowance for doubtful accounts based on sales trend and specific review of the creditworthiness of each customer. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company had recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts of approximately $1,000 and $128,000, respectively.



Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost, which includes material, labor and overhead, is determined on a first-in, first-out basis. On a quarterly basis, we analyze our inventory levels and reserve for inventory that is expected to expire prior to being sold, inventory that has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value, inventory in excess of expected sales requirements, or inventory that fails to meet commercial sale specifications. Expired inventory is disposed of and the related costs are written off to the reserve for inventory obsolescence. The inventory reserve at December 31, 2014 and 2013 was approximately $50,100 and $31,500, respectively.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets (three to seven years). Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the lease term of the related asset (three years).

Business Segments

In accordance with GAAP, the Company is required to report segment information. As the Company only operates principally in one business segment, no additional reporting is required.

Stock-Based Payment Arrangements

Generally, all forms of stock-based payments, including stock option grants, warrants, and restricted stock grants are measured at their fair value on the awards’ grant date typically using a Black-Scholes pricing model. Stock-based compensation awards issued to non-employees for services rendered are recorded at the fair value of the stock-based payment. The expense resulting from stock-based payments are recorded in research and development expense or selling, general and administrative expense in the statement of operations, depending on the nature of the services provided. Stock-based payment expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us. To the extent the stock option grants, warrants, or restricted stock grants do not vest at the grant date they are subject to forfeiture.

Stock-Based Compensation

GAAP requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their fair values as of the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us, to the extent the options do not vest at the grant date and are subject to forfeiture. For performance-based awards that do not include market-based conditions, we record share-based compensation expense only when the performance-based milestone is deemed probable of achievement. We utilize both quantitative and qualitative criteria to judge whether milestones are probable of achievement. For awards with market-based performance conditions, we recognize the grant-date fair value of the award over the derived service period regardless of whether the underlying performance condition is met.


The Company used the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model in calculating the relative fair value of any warrants that have been issued.

Net Loss Per Share

During all periods presented, the Company had securities outstanding that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive. Because the Company reported a net loss for all periods presented, shares associated with the stock options and warrants are not included because they are antidilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per share amounts are the same for the periods presented. Net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding.

Revenue Recognition

We recognize revenues from the sales of product when title and risk of loss pass to the customer, which is generally when the product is shipped.

We record allowances for discounts and product returns at the time of sales as a reduction of revenues as such allowances can be reliably estimated based on historical experience or known trends. We maintain a return policy that allows our customers to return product within a specified period of time. Our estimate of the provision for returns is analyzed quarterly and is based upon many factors, including industry data of product return rates, historical experience of actual returns, analysis of the level of inventory in the distribution channel, if any, and reorder rates. If the history or our product returns changes, the reserve will be adjusted. While we believe that the reserves we have established are reasonable and appropriate based upon current facts and circumstances, applying different judgments to the same facts and circumstances would result in the estimated amounts for sales returns and chargebacks to vary. Because our ProBiora3 products have only recently been introduced, we could experience different circumstances in the future and these differences could be material.

The Company has granted guaranteed rights of return at various times to certain customers. At this time there are two dental distributors with guaranteed rights of return. Orders are processed and shipped on these accounts however the Company defers recognition of revenue until the customer provides notification to the Company that the product has sold to the end consumer. Once notification has been received and verified, the Company will record revenue in that accounting period.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company periodically reviews their long-lived assets for impairment and reduces the carrying value to fair value whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. There were no impairment losses recorded during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.

Advertising Expenses

The Company’s policy is to expense advertising and marketing costs as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, advertising and marketing expense was $61,085 and $895,078, respectively.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development consists of expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of our product candidates. These expenses consist primarily of the following: employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits and attending science conferences; costs incurred in connection with our Exclusive Channel Collaboration (“ECC”) agreements with Intrexon, expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, investigative sites and consultants that conduct our clinical trials and a substantial portion of our nonclinical studies; the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials; facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and equipment, and depreciation of fixed assets; license fees for and milestone payments related to in-licensed products and technology; stock-based compensation expense; and costs associated with nonclinical activities and regulatory approvals. We expense research and development costs as incurred.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rate is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are reduced to estimated amounts expected to be realized by the use of a valuation allowance. Based on our historical operating losses, a valuation allowance has been recognized for all deferred tax assets.

Under GAAP, the impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Additionally, GAAP provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting for interim periods, disclosure and transition.


The Company is dependent on four key suppliers to provide probiotics, blending, warehousing and packaging of its EvoraPlus, EvoraPro, and Teddy’s Pride products during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The majority of the Company’s cost of sales are from these key suppliers. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, our accounts payable and accrued expenses for these vendors totaled $189,120 and $146,284, respectively.


Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash accounts in commercial banks, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2014, the uninsured portion of this balance was $10,198,921. As of December 31, 2013, the uninsured portion of this balance was $16,026,510.