Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies

3. Significant Accounting Policies

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In July 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Updates 2018-10 Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and 2018-11 Leases (Topic 842).

Update 2018-10 Codification Improvements to Topic 842 represent changes to clarify the Codification, correct unintended application of guidance, or make minor improvements to the Codification that are not expected to have a significant effect on current accounting practice or create a significant administrative cost to most entities. Some of the amendments make the Codification easier to understand and easier to apply by eliminating inconsistencies, providing needed clarifications, and improving the presentation of guidance in the Codification.

Update 2018-11 Leases (Topic 842) provides entities with an additional (and optional) transition method to adopt the new lease requirements by allowing entities to initially apply the requirements by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment transition method, which applies the provisions of the standard at the effective date without adjusting comparative periods presented. Consequently, an entity’s reporting for the comparative periods presented in the financial statements in which the entity adopts the new lease requirements would continue to be in accordance with current GAAP (Topic 840). An entity electing this additional (and optional) transition method must provide the required Topic 840 disclosures for all periods that continue to be in accordance with Topic 840. The amendments do not change the existing disclosure requirements in Topic 840. We implemented this standard on January 1, 2019 using the cumulative-effect adjustment transition method, which applies the provisions of the standard at the effective date without adjusting the comparative periods presented. The Company adopted the following practical expedients and elected the following accounting policies related to this standard:


We did not reassess whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases.


We did not reassess the lease classification for any expired or existing leases.


We did not reassess initial direct costs for any existing leases.

The standard did not have a material impact on our balance sheets or on our statements of operations. The most significant impact was the recognition of right of use (ROU) assets and lease liabilities for operating leases. We implemented internal controls to enable the preparation of financial information on adoption of the standard. Adoption of the lease standard had no impact to cash provided by or used in operating, financing, or investing activities in the cash flow statements.

In June 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update 2018-07 Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The amendments in this Update expand the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. The requirements of Topic 718 should be applied to nonemployee awards except for specific guidance on inputs to an option pricing model and the attribution of cost (that is, the period of time over which share-based payment awards vest and the pattern of cost recognition over that period). The amendments specify that Topic 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The amendments also clarify that Topic 718 does not apply to share-based payments used to effectively provide (1) financing to the issuer or (2) awards granted in conjunction with selling goods or services to customers as part of a contract accounted for under Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

The amendments in this Update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s results of operation, financial position or disclosures.

There are no additional accounting pronouncements issued or effective during the three months ended March 31, 2019 that have had, or are expected to have, a material impact on our financial statements.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The principal areas of estimation reflected in the financial statements are stock based compensation, valuation of warrants, and income tax valuation allowance.

Stock-Based Payment Arrangements

Generally, all forms of stock-based payments, including stock option grants, warrants, and restricted stock grants are measured at their fair value on the awards’ grant date using a Black-Scholes pricing model. Stock-based compensation awards issued to non-employees for services rendered are recorded at the fair value of the stock-based payment. The expense resulting from stock-based payments are recorded in research and development expense or general and administrative expense in the statement of operations, depending on the nature of the services provided. Stock-based payment expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us. To the extent the stock option grants, warrants, or restricted stock grants do not vest at the grant date they are subject to forfeiture.

Stock-Based Compensation

US GAAP requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their fair values as of the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us, to the extent the options do not vest at the grant date and are subject to forfeiture. For performance-based awards that do not include market-based conditions, we record share-based compensation expense only when the performance-based milestone is deemed probable of achievement. We utilize both quantitative and qualitative criteria to judge whether milestones are probable of achievement. For awards with market-based performance conditions, we recognize the grant-date fair value of the award over the derived service period regardless of whether the underlying performance condition is met. In connection with adopting ASU 2016-09, the Company made an accounting policy election to account for forfeitures in compensation expense as they occur.


The Company used the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model in calculating the relative fair value of any warrants that have been issued.

Net Loss Per Share

During all periods presented, the Company had securities outstanding that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive because the Company reported a net loss for all periods presented. Basic and diluted net loss per share amounts are the same for the periods presented. Net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding.


Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash accounts in commercial banks, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents. As of March 31, 2019, the uninsured portion of this balance was $29,098,925. As of December 31, 2018, the uninsured portion of this balance was $19,958,301.