Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2012
|Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
No new accounting pronouncements issued or effective during 2012 have had or are expected to have had an impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The principal areas of estimation reflected in the financial statements are stock based compensation, valuation of warrants, inventory obsolescence reserve, sales returns and allowances and allowance for doubtful accounts.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The fair value of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their carrying values due to their short-term nature.
Guaranteed Rights of Return
The Company has granted guaranteed rights of return to one mass retail and two dental distributors customer accounts. The Company defers recognition of revenue on these accounts until the customer provides notification to the Company that the product has been sold to the end consumer. Once notification has been received and verified, the Company records revenue in that accounting period. The Company had $27,812 and $25,752 of revenue deferred under guaranteed rights of return arrangements included in deferred revenue in the balance sheets as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash balances and highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited in a financial institution and consist of demand deposits and overnight repurchase agreement investments and at times deposits are in excess of federally insured limits.
As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had $61,763 and $264,960, respectively, of cash remaining that was restricted pursuant to the Common Stock Purchase Agreement dated December 30, 2009. The Company reserved and allocated $1,000,000 of the proceeds from the December 2009 Private Placement to the expenses incurred to further development of the Company’s DPOLT synthetic chemistry platform.
Accounts receivable are recorded at their net realizable value and consist of trade receivables from the sale of product to customers. We analyze accounts receivable on a monthly basis and determine the collectability based on the facts and circumstances relating to each customer. The Company estimates their allowance for doubtful accounts based on sales trend and specific review of the creditworthiness of each customer. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts of approximately $129,000 and $156,000, respectively.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost, which includes material, labor and overhead, is determined on a first-in, first-out basis. On a quarterly basis, we analyze our inventory levels and reserve for inventory that is expected to expire prior to being sold, inventory that has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value, inventory in excess of expected sales requirements, or inventory that fails to meet commercial sale specifications. Expired inventory is disposed of and the related costs are written off to the reserve for inventory obsolescence. The inventory reserve at December 31, 2012 and 2011 was approximately $253,000 and $65,000, respectively.
The Company has authorized a consignment inventory arrangement with one of its mass retail customers in March 2010. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had $0 and $29,147, respectively, of inventory on consignment located at the retailers’ stores and warehouses, which is included in our inventory reserve. Once consignment inventory has been sold by this customer, the customer notifies the Company of the sale and the Company records revenue in that accounting period. The Company authorizes the replenishment of consignment inventory based on orders placed by the customer. The Company is provided with weekly reports of consignment sales activity and balances.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets (three to seven years). Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the lease term of the related asset (five years).
In accordance with GAAP, the Company is required to report segment information. As the Company only operates principally in one business segment, no additional reporting is required.
GAAP requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their fair values as of the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded over the requisite service period in which the grantee provides services to us, to the extent the options do not vest at the grant date and are subject to forfeiture.
The Company used the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model in calculating the relative fair value of any warrants that are issued.
Net Loss Per Share
During all periods presented, the Company had securities outstanding that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would have been antidilutive. Because the Company reported a net loss for all periods presented, shares associated with the stock options and warrants are not included because they are antidilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per share amounts are the same for the periods presented. Net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding.
We recognize revenues from the sales of product when title and risk of loss pass to the customer, which is generally when the product is shipped. Grant revenues are recognized as the reimbursable expenses are incurred over the life of the related grant. Grant revenues are deferred when reimbursable expenses have not been incurred.
We record allowances for discounts and product returns at the time of sales as a reduction of revenues as such allowances can be reliably estimated based on historical experience or known trends. Product returns are limited to specific mass retail customers for expiration of shelf life or unsold product over a period of time. We maintain a return policy that allows our customers to return product within a specified period of time prior to and subsequent to the expiration date of the product. Our estimate of the provision for returns is analyzed quarterly and is based upon many factors, including industry data of product return rates, historical experience of actual returns, analysis of the level of inventory in the distribution channel, if any, and reorder rates. If the history or our product returns changes, the reserve will be adjusted. While we believe that the reserves we have established are reasonable and appropriate based upon current facts and circumstances, applying different judgments to the same facts and circumstances would result in the estimated amounts for sales returns and chargebacks to vary. Because our ProBiora3 products have only recently been introduced, we could experience different circumstances in the future and these differences could be material.
The Company has granted guaranteed rights of return at various times to certain customers. At this time there are two dental distributors with guaranteed rights of return. Orders are processed and shipped on these accounts however the Company defers recognition of revenue until the customer provides notification to the Company that the product has sold to the end consumer. Once notification has been received and verified, the Company will record revenue in that accounting period.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically reviews their long-lived assets for impairment and reduces the carrying value to fair value whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. There were no impairment losses recorded during the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.
The Company’s policy is to expense advertising and marketing costs as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, advertising and marketing expense was $49,133 and $735,245 respectively.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development consists of expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of our product candidates. These expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits and attending science conferences; expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, investigative sites and consultants that conduct our clinical trials and a substantial portion of our preclinical studies; the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials; facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and equipment, and depreciation of fixed assets; license fees for and milestone payments related to in-licensed products and technology; stock-based compensation expense; and costs associated with non-clinical activities and regulatory approvals. We expense research and development costs as incurred.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rate is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are reduced to estimated amounts expected to be realized by the use of a valuation allowance. Based on our historical operating losses, a valuation allowance has been recognized for all deferred tax assets.
Under GAAP, the impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Additionally, GAAP provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting for interim periods, disclosure and transition.
The Company was dependent on four and three key suppliers to provide probiotics, blending, warehousing and packaging of its EvoraPlus, EvoraPlus Kids, EvoraPro, and Teddy’s Pride products during the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The majority of the Company’s cost of sales are from these key suppliers. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, our accounts payable and accrued expenses for these vendors totaled $99,000 and $108,312, respectively.
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash accounts in commercial banks, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2012, the uninsured portion of this balance was $9,737,730. As of December 31, 2011, the uninsured portion of this balance was $186,699.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef